In Armenian Haiastan, official name – Republic of Armenia (Haiastani Hanrapetutiun), is located in the western part of Asia, in Trans Caucasian. Area 29,8 thousand sq. km. Bounds in the north with Georgia, in the east and southeast with Azerbaijan, in the south with Iran, in the west and southwest with Turkey.
After disintegration of the USSR in 1991 the Republic of Armenia was founded. December 21 1991 it was integrated in the Commonwealth of the Independent States (CIS).
Armenia is a mountainous country (approximately 90 % of its square is more than 1000 -2000 m. above sea level). It is located in the northeastern part of Armenian Highlands. The highest mountaintops are Aragats (4090 m.), Ajdahak (3597 m.) and Vardenis (3522 m). Thick forests are observed in the regions of Siunik, Tavush, Kotaik.The biggest lake in the territory of Armenia is Sevan which is 1900 m above the sea level and it covers territory of 1265 sq. km. Another lakes are Kari (the mount Aragats), Aiger (in Ararat valley), Kaputan (mountain chain Zangezur), Aknalich (mountain chain Gegama), the lake Parz in Dilijan. The rivers originate from huge massifs and deep canyons. Main rivers are Araks, Agstev, Hrazdan, Azat, Vedi, Arpa, Vorotan, Vokhchi, Megri, Pambak, Kasakh etc. Armenia is rich in minerals. In the northern and eastern parts of the country there are rich reserves of copper ore, in the southeast – those of molybdenum, central and southeastern regions are rich in iron ore. Armenia is rich in tufa stones (orange, yellow, pink, black), marble that is perfect building and finishing materials. Among half-precious and artificial stones are selected agate, jasper, amethyst, ruby, sapphire, obsidian, and turquoise. Are known nearly 7500 sources of fresh and 1300 of mineral waters, many of which are used for curing purposes (Jermuk, Arzni, Dilijan, Bjni, Hankavan, Sevan etc.).
Armenia is located in a subtropical zone. The mountains determine its climatic peculiarities. Rainfall is not equable and maximal fall can be registered in spring and in autumn max. 550 mm. In mountainous regions climate is cold and snow is being preserved long.